It turns out that this unpredictability comes mainly from variations in the quantities and ratios of phytocannabinoids and synergistic terpenes. Too much THC can overstimulate the body’s CB1 receptors, while THC’s non-intoxicating sister molecule, cannabidiol (CBD), can directly and indirectly counteract the anxiety people experience from too much THC. Different cannabis strains have different concentrations of these two molecules — which is one reason for vastly different anxiety responses.


Barrett Jones is a clinical pharmacologist who studied at Baylor College of Medicine, Texas. He currently works in a chemistry laboratory in Columbia University (where he also lecturers occasionally) investigating how pharmaceuticals interact with our biological systems. He specializes in and is passionate about how medication used for treating ADD and ADHD may impact long-term cognitive abilities. He has written many papers and is often consulted in a number of lawsuits against pharmaceutical companies.

Stephanie Kahn, who with her husband, Jeffrey, runs the Takoma Wellness Center, a medical marijuana dispensary in Northwest Washington, says that about half of her 1,200 patients use CBD-rich products. Her dispensary offers several strains of high-CBD cannabis as well as CBD oil, with different ratios of CBD and THC, each of which she recommends for particular conditions. “We get questions about it every day,” she says. “A lot of our patients get relief with this, and a lot of times this works better than pharmaceutical drugs.”
The existence of substantial clinical investigations regarding CBD has been made public. For example, two such substantial clinical investigations include GW Pharmaceuticals’ investigations regarding Sativex and Epidiolex. (See Sativex Commences US Phase II/III Clinical Trial in Cancer Pain and GW Pharmaceuticals Receives Investigational New Drug (IND) from FDA for Phase 2/3 Clinical Trial of Epidiolex in the Treatment of Dravet Syndrome ).
CBD, or cannabidiol, is a cannabinoid found in the hemp plant. As we’ve discovered more about the human species as well as the plants that we’ve learned of the immense health value that CBD brings to the table. It has quickly become a staple supplement for millions who seek a natural alternative to dangerous pharmaceuticals, alien to nature’s perfect remedies.
James Joliat, a 35-year-old video producer in Denver, has long experienced muscle and joint pain—mostly related to sports injuries. He says he started looking at natural remedies as an alternative to the prescription patches and pills his doctor recommended. After experimenting with homemade rubs infused with plant compounds—stuff like arnica and turmeric—he eventually stumbled onto topical cannabidiol (CBD) rubs.
^ Klein C, Karanges E, Spiro A, Wong A, Spencer J, Huynh T, Gunasekaran N, Karl T, Long LE, Huang XF, Liu K, Arnold JC, McGregor IS (November 2011). "Cannabidiol potentiates Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) behavioural effects and alters THC pharmacokinetics during acute and chronic treatment in adolescent rats". Psychopharmacology. 218 (2): 443–457. doi:10.1007/s00213-011-2342-0. PMID 21667074.
This content is strictly the opinion of Dr. Josh Axe and is for informational and educational purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical advice or to take the place of medical advice or treatment from a personal physician. All readers/viewers of this content are advised to consult their doctors or qualified health professionals regarding specific health questions. Neither Dr. Axe nor the publisher of this content takes responsibility for possible health consequences of any person or persons reading or following the information in this educational content. All viewers of this content, especially those taking prescription or over-the-counter medications, should consult their physicians before beginning any nutrition, supplement or lifestyle program.
But he wasn’t finished. In February of 1980, Dr. Mechoulam teamed up with South American researchers to publish a study regarding cannabis and epilepsy. This study is seen as one of the earliest double-blind studies of CBD on clinical subjects. The study Dr. Mechoulam and his team conducted included 16 people, many of whom were children, who all suffered from severe epilepsy. The results were startling: Every subject who received CBD experienced improvement in their condition with little to no side effects. This anticonvulsant study has since proven to be an integral milestone in the world of clinical marijuana research, but largely went unnoticed at the time.
In 2019, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) announced that CBD and other cannabinoids would be classified as "novel foods",[84] meaning that CBD products would require authorization under the EU Novel Food Regulation stating: because "this product was not used as a food or food ingredient before 15 May 1997, before it may be placed on the market in the EU as a food or food ingredient, a safety assessment under the Novel Food Regulation is required."[85] The recommendation – applying to CBD extracts, synthesized CBD, and all CBD products, including CBD oil – was scheduled for a final ruling by the European Commission in March 2019.[84] If approved, manufacturers of CBD products would be required to conduct safety tests and prove safe consumption, indicating that CBD products would not be eligible for legal commerce until at least 2021.[84]
Reality: Hemp oil is an increasingly popular product, used for an expanding variety of purposes. The washed hemp seed contains no THC at all. The tiny amounts of THC contained in industrial hemp are in the glands of the plant itself. Sometimes, in the manufacturing process, some THC- and CBD-containing resin sticks to the seed, resulting in traces of THC in the oil that is produced. The concentration of these cannabinoids in the oil is infinitesimal. No one can get high from using hemp oil.
Our bodies are thought to produce endocannabinoids by the billions every day. “We always thought the ‘runner’s high’ was due to the release of dopamine and endorphins. But now we know the euphoria is also from an endocannabinoid called anandamide,” its name derived from the Sanskrit word for bliss, says Joseph Maroon, M.D., clinical professor and vice chairman of neurosurgery at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. We produce these natural chemicals all day, but they fade quickly because enzymes pop up to destroy them. That’s where CBD comes in: By blocking these enzymes, CBD allows the beneficial compounds to linger. This is why Amanda Oliver, 31, a career consultant in Charleston, SC, pops a CBD gummy bear each night before bed. “I used to lie there tossing and turning as my mind raced from work projects to whether I had set the home alarm,” Oliver says. One piece of candy with 15 mg of CBD is enough to shut off her brain and facilitate sleep. She also swears by the CBD oil she takes at the height of her period, which she says quells her debilitating cramps.
The exact mechanism of action of CBD and THC is not currently fully understood. However, it is known that CBD acts on cannabinoid (CB) receptors of the endocannabinoid system, which are found in numerous areas of the body, including the peripheral and central nervous systems, including the brain. The endocannabinoid system regulates many physiological responses of the body including pain, memory, appetite, and mood. More specifically, CB1 receptors can be found within the pain pathways of the brain and spinal cord where they may affect CBD-induced analgesia and anxiolysis, and CB2 receptors have an effect on immune cells, where they may affect CBD-induced anti-inflammatory processes.
Collin, C., Ehler, E., Waberzinek, G., Alsindi, Z., Davies, P., Powell, K., Notcutt, W., O'Leary, C., Ratcliffe, S., Novakova, I., Zapletalova, O., Pikova, J., and Ambler, Z. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of Sativex, in subjects with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. Neurol.Res. 2010;32(5):451-459. View abstract.

Taking a fish oil supplement can be a helpful way to increase omega-3 fatty acids in your diet, a nutrient that is essential for brain development, immune system health, and mood regulation. Expectant mothers certainly want to include these nutrients in their diet; however, fish contains a great deal of mercury which can hinder neurological and developmental mechanisms in the unborn baby. Fortunately, hemp oil works as a terrific alternative to traditional omega-3 fatty acid supplements and doesn’t carry the same risk of mercury ingestion.  

When people cite the so-called negative effects of cannabis, they are usually due to the presence of  tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the compound that causes the psychoactive effects. Some of these, such as paranoia and increased levels of stress, may be negated by the balancing power of cannabidiol. The chemical can help increase feelings of calm and self-awareness to make it safer for patients to use cannabis for medical treatment without risking common side effects. Since each patient reacts differently to treatment, some may experience differing effects that can occur during cannabis consumption.
Epilepsy. A specific cannabidiol product (Epidiolex, GW Pharmaceuticals) has been shown to reduce seizures in adults and children with various conditions that are linked with seizures. This product is a prescription drug for treating seizures caused by Dravet syndrome or Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. It has also been shown to reduce seizures in people with tuberous sclerosis complex, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES). But it's not approved for treating these other types of seizures.
Why stress happens and how to manage it Stress is essential for survival; the chemicals it triggers help the body prepare to face danger and cope with difficulty. Long-term stress is linked to various health conditions and can cause physical and psychological symptoms. How is it diagnosed, what types of stress are there, and how is it treated or managed? Read now
Rule #2 – Be consistent with your dosing. Don’t start small and then jump to higher doses. It’s important that your body gets accustomed to the CBD, so gradually increase the amount over time. Also, don’t get discouraged if you do not notice effects immediately – some people have said it took them up to two weeks of daily use before they started noticing positive results.
@lalyfa In 2010 I went off a cocktail of psychotropics including antidepressants, antianxiety and antipsychotics cold turkey. The meds were wrong for me and the withdrawal was severe and I rarely slept, had RLS, neuropathy and cranky beyond words. Some of these meds took 9+ months to clear my system. Be sure to follow doctor's advice. I did not have a doctor at the time and would not go to the ER knowing it would have resulted in more abuse. Not an intelligent thing to do and not sorry I made the choice even though the experience was horrific and would not reccomend anyone go this route. As to how long the withdrawal lasts the best thing is to discuss this with a pharmacist as this is where their training is and they understand much better and be of help. Wishing you the best.

Though unflavored and priced higher than competitors, Green Roads CBD oils are made by a trusted manufacturer and use organically grown hemp. Following the CO2 supercritical fluid extraction process, board-certified pharmacists formulate the tincture by hand. Green Roads only sells CBD isolates, so if you’re looking for broad-spectrum products look to some of our other recommendations.


^ Jump up to: a b Pamplona, Fabricio A.; da Silva, Lorenzo Rolim; Coan, Ana Carolina (12 September 2018). "Potential Clinical Benefits of CBD-Rich Cannabis Extracts Over Purified CBD in Treatment-Resistant Epilepsy: Observational Data Meta-analysis". Frontiers in Neurology. 9. doi:10.3389/fneur.2018.00759. ISSN 1664-2295. PMC 6143706. PMID 30258398.

The main thing to remember is that cannabis oil is made for ingestion rather than inhalation. Despite the fact that some cannabis extracts made for smoking/vapourizing can contain more than 50% THC by weight (versus 2-3% THC in our cannabis oils), the amount (grams or millilitres) of cannabis oil used by patients is much greater than their inhaled counterparts. Therefore a typical dose of THC (in mg) is quite comparable.
The truth is, we still don’t have nearly the amount of research needed to fully understand the effects of each and every cannabinoid on our system. With that said, if you have symptoms or conditions that CBD can help with, go with pure CBD oil. If you are suffering from something more general like chronic pain, a full-spectrum hemp oil could bring some additional benefits from the extra cannabinoids. Try hemp-based products as well as pure CBD products, and let us know what you experience!
He described an experiment that was done in Brazil in which a 200mg/day dosage of CBD was added to the anticonvulsants epilepsy patients were currently taking. Over the course of several months only 1 of the 7 patients showed no improvement; three became seizure-free; one experienced only one or two seizures, and two experienced reduced severity and occurrence of seizures.
As more and more states legalize the use of marijuana, a product known as CBD oil has surged in popularity. A chemical compound found in the cannabis plant, CBD, or cannabidiol, is non-intoxicating and does not cause the noticeable euphoric effects associated with tetrahydrocannabinol (or THC, another marijuana compound). Products marketed as CBD oil may contain THC.
May this letter find you and your loved ones happy and healthy for without you I would not be in such an improved state of physical health? It is not often I get to put pencil to paper for not only could I not concentrate due to opiate pharmaceuticals (couldn't express oneself due to lack of cognitive thinking) but the pain, inability to get comfortable due to lymphodemia and anxiety from stress (from lack of cash flow for food, bills, medicines plus the high expense of bandages & ointments) have prevented me from making contact but ....still after this prolonged period of time, I feel it necessary to write personally to mention just how dramatically you changed the world my two children and I live in. My sister Casey Lee Smith, arrived 6 months ago from the USA to run my household and it is through "Phoenix Tears" website she was able to make contact with you and learn all about the many wondrous benefits of medicinal Cannabis oil. When the treatment arrived, I was overwhelmed for I am a single Mother and your generosity brought tears to my eyes (even now it is hard to fight tears as I write) It has been rough to say the least. Feeling helpless, overly tired and frustrated by the lack of qualified physicians in my local town. I became depressed. My ex-husband felt he should prepare the kids for my untimely death. The location of my cancer spread throughout my left quadrant into my lymph and into the brain. I became bed ridden and lost hope. I will lose my house shortly but now i know it won't be my life. So, "THANK YOU" for the gracious gift and know you are loved! Sending love to you forever and always.

Cannabis oil also posses antioxidant properties. This property makes cannabis oil useful in the treatment and prevention of wide variety of diseases, such as ischemic, age-related inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Cannabis oil may also have a use as neuroprotectants for such things like limiting neurological damage following a stroke or head trauma. It can also be used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and HIV dementia.  

Technically speaking, its THC—the cannabinoid that gets you high—which is illicit. When you take a drug test, the aim is to detect THC in your body, not “cannabis.” If you possessed weed without any THC in it, technically you wouldn’t be in violation of the law. Because “weed” without THC has a different name: hemp. And the rules governing hemp are quite different from the restrictions placed on cannabis.

Unrefined hemp oil does not have a very long shelf life. The oil quickly goes rancid, unless it is stored in dark containers in a refrigerated environment. People who use unrefined hemp oil generally purchase it in small amounts so that it will not become rancid. The oil is also not suitable for cooking, because it has a very low smoking point. Refined hemp oil is much more shelf stable, although many of the benefits of it are not present after refining.


CBD is short for cannabidiol, a cannabinoid compound that is found in hemp and marijuana. Both hemp and marijuana are part of the plant family known as Cannabis. The main difference between marijuana and hemp is the level of THC in each. THC, like CBD, is a cannabinoid compound. There are 60 different known cannabinoids, but THC is the most well-known—the Beyoncé of cannabinoids, if you will. The reason THC is so famous is because it's associated with the psychoactive high that people experience after smoking or ingesting weed.

Collin, C., Ehler, E., Waberzinek, G., Alsindi, Z., Davies, P., Powell, K., Notcutt, W., O'Leary, C., Ratcliffe, S., Novakova, I., Zapletalova, O., Pikova, J., and Ambler, Z. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of Sativex, in subjects with symptoms of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. Neurol.Res. 2010;32(5):451-459. View abstract.
The cost of treatment varies: Depending on the dispensary and the dosage, it can range from around $100 a month to more than $1,000. Despite the cost, which is not covered by insurance, CBD medicines are drawing great interest for children with severe, intractable epilepsy. California and Colorado, which were among the first states to legalize medical marijuana, have become hot spots for such patients. Before other states legalized medicinal CBD use, some families moved to these states so they could have access to the compound.
Cannabidiol has antipsychotic effects. The exact cause for these effects is not clear. However, cannabidiol seems to prevent the breakdown of a chemical in the brain that affects pain, mood, and mental function. Preventing the breakdown of this chemical and increasing its levels in the blood seems to reduce psychotic symptoms associated with conditions such as schizophrenia. Cannabidiol might also block some of the psychoactive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Also, cannabidiol seems to reduce pain and anxiety.
A. While the agency is aware of reports of pets consuming various forms of marijuana, to date, FDA has not directly received any adverse event reports associated with giving marijuana to animals via our safety reporting portals. However, adverse events from accidental ingestion are well-documented in scientific literature. If you feel your animal has suffered from ingesting marijuana, we encourage you to report the adverse event to the FDA. Please visit Reporting Information about Animal Drugs and Devices to learn more about how to report an adverse event related to an animal food or drug.
From a pharmacological perspective, Cannabis' (and CBD's) diverse receptor profile explains its potential application for such a wide variety of medical conditions. Cannabis contains more than 400 different chemical compounds, of which 61 are considered cannabinoids, a class of compounds that act upon endogenous cannabinoid receptors of the body [11]. Cannabinoid receptors are utilized endogenously by the body through the endocannabinoid system, which includes a group of lipid proteins, enzymes, and receptors that are involved in many physiological processes. Through its modulation of neurotransmitter release, the endocannabinoid system regulates cognition, pain sensation, appetite, memory, sleep, immune function, and mood among many other bodily systems. These effects are largely mediated through two members of the G-protein coupled receptor family, cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2)[12, 8]. CB1 receptors are found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, with the majority of receptors localized to the hippocampus and amygdala of the brain. Physiological effects of using cannabis make sense in the context of its receptor activity as the hippocampus and amygdala are primarily involved with regulation of memory, fear, and emotion. In contrast, CB2 receptors are mainly found peripherally in immune cells, lymphoid tissue, and peripheral nerve terminals [9].
Jackson Leyden had always been a healthy kid; he practiced taekwondo, and he played lacrosse and baseball. But in 2011, a few months after his eighth birthday, he began having seizures several times a day. Many were brief, a half-minute of staring into space, but he also had severe episodes in which he would collapse, sometimes injuring himself. Over the next two years, he was hospitalized about 50 times, and he missed much of fourth and fifth grade.
One classic use is in soaps. Hemp oil is also used in paints and lubricants, and as a body care product. It may be rubbed directly onto the skin to treat cracked, dry skin, or it can be blended into body oils, body creams, and other personal care products. Some people also use it as a dietary supplement, taking advantage of the high concentrations of essential fatty acids in unrefined hemp oil and using the oil as a dressing or garnish to improve nutrition.
A. We understand that parents are trying to find treatments for their children’s medical conditions. However, the use of untested drugs can have unpredictable and unintended consequences. Caregivers and patients can be confident that FDA-approved drugs have been carefully evaluated for safety, efficacy, and quality, and are monitored by the FDA once they are on the market. The FDA continues to support sound, scientifically-based research into the medicinal uses of drug products containing marijuana or marijuana constituents, and will continue to work with companies interested in bringing safe, effective, and quality products to market.
Industrial hemp contains, by weight, far less CBD than CBD-rich cultivars such as Harlequin or Sour Tsunami. This means that producing a single 10 mL dose of CBD would require the cultivation and extraction of far more hemp than it would from whole-plant marijuana; thus raising the risk of exposing users to more contaminants. Hemp is classified as a “bioaccumulator,” or a plant that naturally absorbs toxicants from the soil.
Chances are you've seen products containing CBD by now—this super-trendy stuff is making its way into everything from hand creams to cocktails. But is CBD worth the hype? TBH, the answer is a little murkier than we'd like: Because of complicated legal issues, there just haven't been enough studies yet to really and truly prove that CBD does anything except treat a rare form of childhood epilepsy. However, just because we're waiting on more studies for super-solid evidence to back up its potential uses doesn't mean this stuff doesn't work. (For more detail on exactly what CBD is and what it does, check this out.)
In addition to acting on the brain, CBD influences many body processes. That’s due to the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which was discovered in the 1990s, after scientists started investigating why pot produces a high. Although much less well-known than the cardiovascular, reproductive, and respiratory systems, the ECS is critical. “The ECS helps us eat, sleep, relax, forget what we don’t need to remember, and protect our bodies from harm,” Marcu says. There are more ECS receptors in the brain than there are for opioids or serotonin, plus others in the intestines, liver, pancreas, ovaries, bone cells, and elsewhere.

The legality of smoked cannabis and oils differs by state, with some allowing only one or the other. Likewise, some states only approved the plant for use in a limited capacity, such as for children with epileptic disorders. It continues to be classified as a Schedule I drug, making it illegal under federal stipulations. When produced from industrial hemp products, cannabis oil may be legal, but when created from a crop of medical marijuana, its status reverts back to illegal unless the state has provisions for it.
The 2014 Farm Bill[75] legalized the sale of "non-viable hemp material" grown within states participating in the Hemp Pilot Program.[76] This legislation defined hemp as cannabis containing less than 0.3% of THC delta-9, grown within the regulatory framework of the Hemp Pilot Program.[77] The 2018 Farm Bill allowed for interstate commerce of hemp derived products, though these products still fall under the purview of the FDA.[78][79]

CBD stands for cannabidiol. It is the second most prevalent of the active ingredients of cannabis (marijuana). While CBD is an essential component of medical marijuana, it is derived directly from the hemp plant, which is a cousin of the marijuana plant. While CBD is a component of marijuana (one of hundreds), by itself it does not cause a “high.” According to a report from the World Health Organization, “In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential…. To date, there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.”

To start I read many reviews, because I was curious. I've lived with chronic pain for years and haven't had a prescription yet that helped or even partially touched the pain. I was reading about Hemp oil, CBD oil etc. on YouTube and that got me started checking this item out. The CBD oil is so expensive I couldn't buy it because that's a lot of money for something that might not work. I checked Amazon and they had it cheaper, but still expensive enough I didn't want to take the chance.


We use a combination of both Subcritical and Supercritical extractions. This allows us to perform a “fractional extraction” by first extracting at lower pressures to remove the lighter, temperature-sensitive volatile oils, and then subsequently extracting the same material at a higher pressure to remove the remaining oils. This approach is the best because it allows us to extract a complete range of cannabinoids, terpenes, essential oils, and other beneficial phytochemicals that yield a more potent blend.

CBD has powerful effects on the liver as well. Have you ever had a prescription that warns you not to take the medicine along with grapefruit? That’s because grapefruit inhibits certain drug-metabolizing enzymes in your liver, resulting in much higher levels of your medication in your bloodstream. CBD does the same thing, so it is wise to discuss your medication regimen with a doctor or pharmacist before engaging in CBD therapy.


These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). These products are not meant to diagnose, treat or cure any disease or medical condition. Please consult your doctor before starting any exercise or nutritional supplement program or before using these or any product during pregnancy or if you have a serious medical condition.
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