In this edition of Cannabis Conversations, Project CBD Director, Martin A. Lee, discusses the benefits of CBD, the "entourage effect" and the microbiome with Dr. Ethan Russo. A neurologist, scientist, and widely published author, Dr. Russo is currently the director of research and development at the International Cannabis and Cannabinoids Institute in Prague (www.icci.science).
Discontinue use and consult a medical doctor immediately if you experience unusual symptoms. Consult a medical doctor before use if you have been treated for, or diagnosed with or have a family history of any medical condition, or if you are using any prescription or over-the-counter drug(s), including blood thinners. Consult a medical doctor before starting any diet or exercise program. Improper use of this product will not improve results and is not advised. Use only as directed.
Hippocampal neurogenesis: The hippocampus is a major brain area, and plays a critical role in a variety of brain functions. It’s most famous for its role in memory formation and cognition. Brain scans of patients suffering from depression or anxiety often show a smaller hippocampus, and successful treatment of depression is associated with the birth of new neurons (neurogenesis) in the hippocampus.
Why stress happens and how to manage it Stress is essential for survival; the chemicals it triggers help the body prepare to face danger and cope with difficulty. Long-term stress is linked to various health conditions and can cause physical and psychological symptoms. How is it diagnosed, what types of stress are there, and how is it treated or managed? Read now
Laboratory evidence indicated that cannabidiol may reduce THC clearance, increasing plasma concentrations which may raise THC availability to receptors and enhance its effect in a dose-dependent manner.[25][26] In vitro, cannabidiol inhibited receptors affecting the activity of voltage-dependent sodium and potassium channels, which may affect neural activity.[27] A small clinical trial reported that CBD partially inhibited the CYP2C-catalyzed hydroxylation of THC to 11-OH-THC.[28]

Cannabis oil is a concentrated extract obtained by extraction of the dried flowers or leaves of the cannabis plant. It is not actually an oil, but derives its name from its sticky and oily appearance. The purpose of producing cannabis oil is to make cannabinoids and other beneficial components, such as terpenes, available in a highly concentrated form.
Physiological manifestations like stress, and poor diet may negatively impact other systems in the body via specific cellular processes. Nutrition plays an important role in preserving various systemic and metabolic functions by supplying the appropriate dietary needs to the body system. The nutrient signaling pathways are coupled to cellular processes, and the cross-talk between the two is critical in maintaining a well-balanced systemic function of the body. The systemic imbalance may occur under circumstances such as stress, and fatigue, which may trigger inflammatory responses in the body3 and inflammation may cause unwanted health conditions. It has been shown that various dietary components may support key resolution pathways to inflammation, energy balance and metabolism via the ECS.4,5,6,7,8 Nutrients that may support healthy inflammatory response include omega-3 fatty acids, and antioxidants, from a whole food matrix in the form of phytonutrients.2,9
There is currently one FDA-approved prescription CBD product, called Epidiolex, for the treatment of seizures associated with two rare and severe forms of epilepsy, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome.  There is also an oral spray called Sativex, which is a combination of THC and CBD used to treat pain related to multiple sclerosis, but it is not approved in the United States.
While the science behind CBD oil assuaged many of my concerns, Charlotte Figi's inspiring story was the kicker. Figi, a 6-year-old girl diagnosed with a rare and resistant form of epilepsy known as Dravet syndrome, was actually placed on hospice care and given a "do not resuscitate" order when her parents, desperate and frustrated with pharmaceutical medication, considered medical marijuana. Charlotte is now 99% seizure-free since she began supplementing with Charlotte Web's CBD oil, which the brand named after Figi.
14. In making the two previous determinations about THC, why did FDA conclude that THC is an active ingredient in a drug product that has been approved under section 505 of the FD&C Act? In making the two previous determinations about CBD, why did FDA determine that substantial clinical investigations have been authorized for and/or instituted, and that the existence of such investigations has been made public?
Cannabidiol, or CBD for short, is a phyto-cannabinoid found in cannabis plants. However, it does not cause the same psychoactive effects as other naturally occurring cannabinoids (such as tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC). CBD induces feelings of sleepiness and tranquility, making it suitable for insomnia and other sleep disorders; CBD can be used to alleviate symptoms of epilepsy, diabetes, and anxiety disorders, as well. Legality is an issue for some; all 50 states have laws governing the sale, possession, and use of CBD, and they vary significantly (see the table below for a full analysis).
CBD Oil or Hemp Extract- CBD Oil, often times referred to as Hemp Extract. Hemp extract is an extract with naturally occurring terpenes, flavonoids, Cannabinoids, and other beneficial phytonutrients from the hemp plant. This CO2 extracted Hemp oil or CBD Oil is free of harmful solvents and uses a gentle, low temperature, alcohol free extraction process that yields the purest form of Hemp oil extract or CBD Oil available. This clean oil extraction process yields a high quality extracted hemp oil retaining a broad spectrum of terpenes, Cannabinoids, and other phyto-compounds derived from the Cannabis Sativa industrial hemp plant like CBD Oil. Zatural's CBD Oil does not contain THC and is legal in all 50 states. CBD Oil is most commonly used to assist with Pain, Stress, Anxiety, Sleep, Inflammation, etc. This is due to the Cannabinoids present. 

Can you legally use marijuana? That depends on your area code. While a handful of states are poised to follow the trail blazed by Oregon and Colorado, others seem to be moving in the opposite direction. Some allow for recreational use and others for medicinal purposes. Four states allow both. There are eights states likely to remain holdouts for the foreseeable future. What about yours?
Rigorous clinical studies are still needed to evaluate the clinical potential of CBD for specific conditions.i However, pre-clinical research (including both cell culture and animal models) has shown CBD to have a range of effects that may be therapeutically useful, including anti-seizure, antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-tumor, anti-psychotic, and anti-anxiety properties.
Word of Caution: Although this list clearly shows that cannabis essential oil can be an effective remedy for many common health conditions, it is still a potent chemical substance extracted from a plant with psychotropic substances. Therefore, you should always be very careful while using such an essential oil, including the amount you use and the conditions under which you use it. Speak to a professional about mixing essential oils and present medications before adding any new elements to your health regimen. Also, the use of cannabis is restricted/banned in many countries, so consult a local health specialist before use.
But remember, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to obtain a pure CBD extract or oil from the cannabis plant. Anyone who buys a CBD oil, extract, or other CBD product should assume that it is a mixture of CBD and other cannabinoids. All other cannabinoids, including THC and the other 118 identified cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, as well as all synthetic cannabinoids, are prohibited in-competition.
Szaflarski explains that cannabis contains about 500 different compounds, some of which—including CBD and THC—interact with certain chemical receptors in the human nervous system. But unlike THC, CBD isn’t psychoactive—meaning it doesn’t cause any kind of a high. Despite that, the US Drug Enforcement Agency classifies CBD (and other cannabis compounds) as schedule I substances, making their sale illegal in many states.
^ Hayakawa K, Mishima K, Nozako M, Ogata A, Hazekawa M, Liu AX, Fujioka M, Abe K, Hasebe N, Egashira N, Iwasaki K, Fujiwara M (March 2007). "Repeated treatment with cannabidiol but not Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol has a neuroprotective effect without the development of tolerance". Neuropharmacology. 52 (4): 1079–87. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2006.11.005. PMID 17320118.
CBD may offer an option for treating different types of chronic pain. A study from the European Journal of Pain showed, using an animal model, CBD applied on the skin could help lower pain and inflammation due to arthritis. Another study demonstrated the mechanism by which CBD inhibits inflammatory and neuropathic pain, two of the most difficult types of chronic pain to treat. More study in humans is needed in this area to substantiate the claims of CBD proponents about pain control.
Food and beverage products containing CBD were introduced in the United States in 2017.[53] Similar to energy drinks and protein bars which may contain vitamin or herbal additives, food and beverage items can be infused with CBD as an alternative means of ingesting the substance.[54] In the United States, numerous products are marketed as containing CBD, but in reality contain little or none.[55] Some companies marketing CBD-infused food products with claims that are similar to the effects of prescription drugs have received warning letters from the Food and Drug Administration for making unsubstantiated health claims.[56]

For legal reason we can’t claim that any of our products can cure or treat any type of Cancer. If you are looking for a CBD oil, I would direct you towards are Premium hemp oil drops or softgels. Our Premium hemp oil products contain full spectrum hemp oil. Full spectrum hemp oil and CBD oils are equivalent because they both contain the cannabinoids that are used to assist with pain, inflammation, stress, anxiety, and sleep. If you feel you good benefit from our premium hemp oil products then here is a link to them: https://zatural.com/collections/hemp-oil-products/products/cannabis-sativa-hemp-oil-drops


There is an exception to sections 201(ff)(3)(B)(i) and (ii) if the substance was "marketed as" a dietary supplement or as a conventional food before the drug was approved or before the new drug investigations were authorized, as applicable. However, based on available evidence, FDA has concluded that this is not the case for THC or CBD. For more information on this provision, including an explanation of the phrase "marketed as," see Draft Guidance for Industry: Dietary Supplements: New Dietary Ingredient Notifications and Related Issues.
Final thoughts: Hemp oil and hemp derived CBD oil is legal in all fifty states, but there certainly is a stigma to it. Because of that it can be very hard to find reliable information to educate yourself with. This is a great dietary supplement and may help decrease inflammation, improve skin, help with mild pain, etc. If you have severe pain, hemp derived CBD oil may be what you need.
All material provided within this website is for informational and educational purposes only, and in no way is any of the content on this website to be construed as medical advice or instruction. No action should be taken solely on the contents of this publication. Consult your physician or a qualified health professional on any matters regarding your health and wellbeing or on any opinions expressed within this site. The information provided here is believed to be accurate based on the best judgment of the author but the reader is responsible for consulting with their own health professional on any matters raised within. In addition, you should understand that medical information changes rapidly. Therefore, some information on this website may be out of date or even possibly inaccurate and erroneous. Seek the advice of your physician before taking supplements of any kind.
In addition to fighting inflammation in the body, CBD oil may reduce anxiety by directly affecting the brain. Studies have found that CBD actually lowers activity in the amygdala and increases prefrontal cortex activation, two parts of the brain involved in anxiety. There is also evidence that CBD is able to activate hippocampus neurogenesis, aka regenerate new neurons! This activates CB1 receptors, which has a positive balancing impact on GABA and glutamate levels, associated with reducing anxiety.
Weight plays a role in the effects of CBD oil, and bottle size should be selected based on how much you weigh. Let’s say you weigh less than 130 pounds and desire light CBD oil effects; this means that 11 mg or less will probably suffice per dose, giving roughly 40 doses from a 450-mg concentration. If you weigh more than 230 pounds and desire strong effects, then this same concentration will supply roughly 10 doses. 
Even though marijuana is listed as a dangerous drug, there have been no direct fatalities recorded. The overdose levels are far too high for anyone to ingest. In fact, the overdose levels are 1000 times higher than the effective dose of 15 mg. Any fatalities connected to marijuana have been due to driving while under the influence of THC, trouble with the law because of possession, or smoking weed during a pregnancy (infant fatality).
But he wasn’t finished. In February of 1980, Dr. Mechoulam teamed up with South American researchers to publish a study regarding cannabis and epilepsy. This study is seen as one of the earliest double-blind studies of CBD on clinical subjects. The study Dr. Mechoulam and his team conducted included 16 people, many of whom were children, who all suffered from severe epilepsy. The results were startling: Every subject who received CBD experienced improvement in their condition with little to no side effects. This anticonvulsant study has since proven to be an integral milestone in the world of clinical marijuana research, but largely went unnoticed at the time.
Been using product for a few days now ,I'm about one my 6th dose. I noticed today my hand from nerve damage has not dropped anything or felt numb,or even trembled. Even axienty has been managable. However I'm taking 250mgs.I boosted it up to 500mgs.3 or 4 times daily ,of 250mgs. It seems to have best effect atleast today.It's cold and rainy which,is better than snow ,is my most hightened pain days.Today 4/24/18. Has been a God send! 1 pain and axienty day free ...Makes me a believer! I stand by this products effectiveness. Hope my review helps another soul,that lives with same aliments.

“The brain has these receptors that respond to endocannabinoids, which are neurotransmitters that are naturally produced in the body and brain,” says Jerald Simmons, a neurologist at Houston’s Comprehensive Sleep Medicine Associates. “Some of the cannabinoids in the marijuana plant are very similar to the endocannabinoids in the brain, and they act on the same receptors.”


Hi Sandy, for legal reason we can’t make any type of medical claims, saying that our product will cure or treat any type of medical diagnosis, such as (arthritis). Our CBD oil is great for assisting with pain, inflammation, stress, anxiety and sleep. Depending on the amount of pain or inflammation you will need to pick a strength according. If you are on a scale of 5 to 7 then 3x strength is the best. You can take more or less depending on what you feel as needed.

Under the ACMPR, cannabis oils must be liquid at room temperature, and contain no more than 30 milligrams of THC per millilitre of oil (~3.3% THC w/w) when sold in bulk form, and 10 milligrams of Total THC in capsule form (taking into account the potential to convert the acidic to neutral forms of THC). There are no potency limits placed on CBD or other cannabinoids. The cannabis oil must NOT contain any added flavours or scents, and any allergens in the carrier oil must be listed on the label.
Selective breeding of cannabis plants has expanded and diversified as commercial and therapeutic markets develop. Some growers in the U.S. succeeded in lowering the proportion of CBD-to-THC to accommodate customers who preferred varietals that were more mind-altering due to the higher THC and lower CBD content.[57] Hemp is classified as any part of the cannabis plant containing no more than 0.3% THC in dry weight form (not liquid or extracted form).[58]

CBD is currently available in Canada within a 1:1 formulation with tetrahydrocannbinol (THC) (as the formulation known as "nabiximols") as the brand name product Sativex. It is approved for use as adjunctive treatment for symptomatic relief of spasticity in adult patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Sativex was also given a conditional Notice of Compliance (NOC/c) for use as adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adult patients with multiple sclerosis and as adjunctive analgesic treatment for moderate to severe pain in adult patients with advanced cancer [15].
There is no scientific evidence or research on CBD as an effective treatment for migraine—in large part because it has not been formally studied. However, it may still be a viable topical option for some patients with joint and muscle pain associated with migraine. “If you have a lot of neck pain or soreness, it is perfectly reasonable to use CBD oil. It may even prevent nausea and vomiting,” Dr. Silberstein says.
While there are many different pathways driving the positive health benefits of CBD, the center of its awesome abilities seems to be that CBD is a very effective natural anti-inflammatory. Chronic inflammation is really the commonality between most (and by most, I mean basically all) chronic health problems that we face today as a modern society. Cancer, heart disease, diabetes, autoimmune conditions, digestive issues, and hormonal problems are all inflammatory in nature. What the heck, right?
I herniated a disc first, then months later the disc popped chipping my vertebrae, spinal fusion C5-6, in 2002. I’d been having significant hip pain and was having adjustments done through a chiropractor until I had the surgery at which time my hip quit hurting. Realizing then the pain was actually a nerve in my neck but it was too late, the damage to my hip socket had already been done. All these years later I had constant pain from an overextended/hyperextended hip joint. In August I started CBD oil sublingually for that pain, some insomnia and mild anxiety.
Thirty minutes later, I was surprised by how subtle the effect was. While I expected a hazy nodding-off effect similar to melatonin's, the oil simply relaxed my body ever so slightly—my heart stopped pounding against my chest, my legs stopped kicking beneath my sheets, my mind stopped racing. I wasn't sure if it was the oil or the late hour, but eventually, physical relaxation gave way to mental relaxation, and I drifted off to sleep.
Hemp oil typically refers to hemp seed oil, which is made by a completely different process than CBD oil. Hemp seed oil is cold-pressed from the hemp seeds only. This contains no cannabinoids and can be used as a cooking oil. It also contains high levels of healthy Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids. This oil is not regulated in the US or across the world, and it can be found in most health food stores. As hemp seed oil is a food product that contains no cannabinoids, it is perfectly legal throughout the country.
One population-based case-control study found that in terms of lung cancer risk, smoking one joint of cannabis was similar to smoking 20 tobacco cigarettes. In addition to the negative physical effects, which also include decreased immune function, higher rates of irregular heartbeat, and stroke, cannabis smoking has been linked to mental conditions, including depression, bipolar disorder, and psychosis.

Nutiva began in 1999 as an idea in the mind of John W. Roulac, the author of four books on home composting and industrial hemp. Nutiva is the third successful business John has founded since jump-starting the modern home-composting movement in the early 1990s with his best-selling book, Backyard Composting. That book has sold more than a million copies worldwide.
It’s also important to select CBD oil products based on your concentration preferences. Some forms of CBD oil – such as vapors and tinctures – normally have higher-than-average concentrations, whereas sprays and topicals tend to have lower concentrations. Remember: higher concentration means more pronounced effects, but not necessarily mean higher quality.
Full Spectrum CBD Oil contains some of the same terpenes as dried cannabis bud. Terpenes are the aroma molecules found in plants. Beta-caryophyllene (pepper) and myrcene (musk) are both been found in hemp oil.  According to recent research, beta-caryophyllene acts as a cannabinoid in the body. It engages some of the same cell sites as smoked cannabis. In particular, the terpene interacts with cell receptors that regulate the immune system.  Myrcene has been found to have antidepressant and anti-inflammatory effects. It also acts as an antioxidant and helps molecules move across cell membranes. The combination of essential fatty acids, vitamins, antioxidants and healing terpenes make hemp oil one powerful superfood.
Δ9-THC is also responsible for the pharmacological effects of cannabis, including its psychoactive properties, although other contents of the cannabis plant also contribute to this effect. In particular, CBD, a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid common in some cannabis strains, has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties.
Full Spectrum CBD Oil contains some of the same terpenes as dried cannabis bud. Terpenes are the aroma molecules found in plants. Beta-caryophyllene (pepper) and myrcene (musk) are both been found in hemp oil.  According to recent research, beta-caryophyllene acts as a cannabinoid in the body. It engages some of the same cell sites as smoked cannabis. In particular, the terpene interacts with cell receptors that regulate the immune system.  Myrcene has been found to have antidepressant and anti-inflammatory effects. It also acts as an antioxidant and helps molecules move across cell membranes. The combination of essential fatty acids, vitamins, antioxidants and healing terpenes make hemp oil one powerful superfood. 

A. The FDA is aware that several states have either passed laws that remove state restrictions on the medical use of marijuana and its derivatives or are considering doing so. It is important to conduct medical research into the safety and effectiveness of marijuana products through adequate and well-controlled clinical trials. We welcome the opportunity to talk with states who are considering support for medical research of marijuana and its derivatives to provide information on Federal and scientific standards.
A phytocannabinoid derived from Cannabis species, which is devoid of psychoactive activity, with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. Upon administration, cannabidiol (CBD) exerts its anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic activity through various mechanisms, which likely do not involve signaling by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), CB2, or vanilloid receptor 1. CBD stimulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits AKT/mTOR signaling, thereby activating autophagy and promoting apoptosis. In addition, CBD enhances the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further enhances apoptosis. This agent also upregulates the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP1) and decreases the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID-1). This inhibits cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis. CBD may also activate the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 2 (TRPV2), which may increase the uptake of various cytotoxic agents in cancer cells. The analgesic effect of CBD is mediated through the binding of this agent to and activation of CB1. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)
Dosage is important, because CBD can have side effects—the most common are tiredness, diarrhea, and changes in appetite and weight—so it’s best not to take more than you need. As CBD becomes more prevalent, says J. Michael Bostwick, M.D., a psychiatrist at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, “I’m reasonably certain new kinds of side effects will emerge.”

One population-based case-control study found that in terms of lung cancer risk, smoking one joint of cannabis was similar to smoking 20 tobacco cigarettes. In addition to the negative physical effects, which also include decreased immune function, higher rates of irregular heartbeat, and stroke, cannabis smoking has been linked to mental conditions, including depression, bipolar disorder, and psychosis.
What exactly is cannabidiol (CBD) and more importantly, what does it do? Those questions and more are at the heart of this comprehensive guide to one of the most fascinating and important compounds of the cannabis plant. Cannabis plants are chemical powerhouses that produce more than 400 different compounds. Not all of those compounds are unique to marijuana, of course, and appear in many other species of plants. That’s why marijuana can smell like pine trees or taste like fresh lemons. But of those 400 compounds, more than 60 of them are totally specific to the plant genus Cannabis. Scientists call these special compounds “cannabinoids.” However, not all cannabinoids are created equal. One of them, cannabidiol, or CBD, holds the key to the wide variety of medicinal and therapeutic effects marijuana offers. 
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