Kimberly is the reference editor for Live Science and Space.com. She has a bachelor's degree in marine biology from Texas A&M University, a master's degree in biology from Southeastern Louisiana University and a graduate certificate in science communication from the University of California, Santa Cruz. Her favorite stories include animals and obscurities. A Texas native, Kim now lives in a California redwood forest. You can follow her on Twitter @kimdhickok.
Cannabidiol is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents such as pentane. At room temperature, it is a colorless crystalline solid.[43] In strongly basic media and the presence of air, it is oxidized to a quinone.[44] Under acidic conditions it cyclizes to THC,[45] which also occurs during pyrolysis (smoking).[46] The synthesis of cannabidiol has been accomplished by several research groups.[47][48][49]
And without high-quality trials, experts don’t know how much is best for a given purpose. The staff at Roth’s dispensary told her, “Try some once or twice a day and see what happens.” (Half a dropper’s worth was a good amount for her.) One thing scientists feel confident about is that CBD is not dangerous. It won’t damage vital organs even at doses as high as 5,000 mg a day, Marcu says, and nobody has died from simply overdosing on a cannabis product.
The medical benefits of cannabinoids have been studied extensively; and cannabinoids and CBD oil have been linked in various studies to reducing chronic pain, treating epilepsy and arthritis, and acting as an anti-inflammatory, among other potential medical benefits. “Typically people [come] to us to use CBD oil to reduce anxiety, reduce muscle spasms, seizures, reduce nerve pain, and inflammation,” Cargile says. It’s also “known to be an antioxidant, [which] is really important in skincare,” she notes, pointing out that antioxidants like vitamin C and vitamin E are often added to lotions. Indeed, antioxidants work to protect the body and skin from damage (like broken-down collagen) caused by free radicals, molecules produced when your body breaks down foods or certain medicines or is exposed to pollutants like cigarette smoke or UV radiation.

This high-grade CBD oil can be taken orally in drops or incorporated into food. Cannabis Newfoundland, a division of the Newfoundland and Labrador Liquor Corporation, has it listed on its website as “coming soon” and it can also be ordered (a person must first register as a patient) from Broken Coast’s official website, depending on your home province.


No, hemp oil is not the same as cannabis oil. All-natural hemp oil is obtained by cold pressing of hemp seeds whereas cannabis oil is obtained by separating the resins from cannabis flowers. Their uses and chemical composition are quite different. Cannabis oil is much higher in THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) content, which has certain effects, whereas hemp oil tends to be higher in CBD (cannabidiol) levels.

San Diego restaurateur Beau Schmitt uses CBD gummies to treat his anxiety. He takes two to three gummies in the morning and then again before bed to help him sleep. “I take gummies (vs oils or vaping) because dosing is consistent, they’re convenient, and I don’t look “druggy” while conducting business or interacting with our staff,” he tells Healthline.
In addition to that, data from statistics have demonstrated that CBD oil and anxiety are amongst the most explored subjects on the web, that is as far as cannabis-related treatments and restorative medicines are concerned. Particular studies on CBD oil anxiety, have soar exponentially during previous years. This is present-day evidence that traditional cannabis treatments are starting to rise, and in fact, numerous individuals are as of now receiving the rewards of the hemp-based compound. 

May this letter find you and your loved ones happy and healthy for without you I would not be in such an improved state of physical health? It is not often I get to put pencil to paper for not only could I not concentrate due to opiate pharmaceuticals (couldn't express oneself due to lack of cognitive thinking) but the pain, inability to get comfortable due to lymphodemia and anxiety from stress (from lack of cash flow for food, bills, medicines plus the high expense of bandages & ointments) have prevented me from making contact but ....still after this prolonged period of time, I feel it necessary to write personally to mention just how dramatically you changed the world my two children and I live in. My sister Casey Lee Smith, arrived 6 months ago from the USA to run my household and it is through "Phoenix Tears" website she was able to make contact with you and learn all about the many wondrous benefits of medicinal Cannabis oil. When the treatment arrived, I was overwhelmed for I am a single Mother and your generosity brought tears to my eyes (even now it is hard to fight tears as I write) It has been rough to say the least. Feeling helpless, overly tired and frustrated by the lack of qualified physicians in my local town. I became depressed. My ex-husband felt he should prepare the kids for my untimely death. The location of my cancer spread throughout my left quadrant into my lymph and into the brain. I became bed ridden and lost hope. I will lose my house shortly but now i know it won't be my life. So, "THANK YOU" for the gracious gift and know you are loved! Sending love to you forever and always.
Thoughts: I liked the lavender flavor more than I thought I would, but I've tried SelectCBD in the past, so I wasn't too shocked. The brand's peppermint CBD oil is my go-to morning oil, and lemon ginger is great for a subtle flavor, but the lavender overwhelmed my senses (in a good way?) and left me feeling very zen. I could see this being perfect in a mug of tea or just before bed.
CBD oils may contain some THC. Cannabis may impair your ability to drive safely or operate equipment and may have short- and long-term effects on your memory, attention, mood, heart rate, and mental health. It is also easy to overconsume CBD oil, so it's important to start with a low dose, as it may take several hours or longer to begin to feel the effects after consumption.
It turns out that this unpredictability comes mainly from variations in the quantities and ratios of phytocannabinoids and synergistic terpenes. Too much THC can overstimulate the body’s CB1 receptors, while THC’s non-intoxicating sister molecule, cannabidiol (CBD), can directly and indirectly counteract the anxiety people experience from too much THC. Different cannabis strains have different concentrations of these two molecules — which is one reason for vastly different anxiety responses.
For epilepsy: A prescription cannabidiol product (Epidiolex) has been used. The recommended starting dose is usually 2.5 mg/kg twice daily (5 mg/kg/day). After one week the dose can be increased to 5 mg/kg twice daily (10 mg/kg/day). If the person doesn't respond to this dose, the maximum recommended is 10 mg/kg twice daily (20 mg/kg/day). In some research, higher doses of up to 50 mg/kg daily have been used. There is no strong scientific evidence that nonprescription cannabidiol products are beneficial for epilepsy.
What exactly is cannabidiol (CBD) and more importantly, what does it do? Those questions and more are at the heart of this comprehensive guide to one of the most fascinating and important compounds of the cannabis plant. Cannabis plants are chemical powerhouses that produce more than 400 different compounds. Not all of those compounds are unique to marijuana, of course, and appear in many other species of plants. That’s why marijuana can smell like pine trees or taste like fresh lemons. But of those 400 compounds, more than 60 of them are totally specific to the plant genus Cannabis. Scientists call these special compounds “cannabinoids.” However, not all cannabinoids are created equal. One of them, cannabidiol, or CBD, holds the key to the wide variety of medicinal and therapeutic effects marijuana offers.
We're on the edge of a CBD explosion. The U.S. market for CBD products is estimated to be worth $2.1 billion by 2020, up 700 percent from 2016; the World Anti-Doping Agency removed CBD from its list of banned substances; the Food and Drug Administration approved an epilepsy medication containing CBD oil for the first time, causing the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration to shift its stance — albeit very slightly — on CBD. 

While it was originally believed that THC is a breakdown product of CBD, it is now known that both THC and CBD are actually metabolites of their decarboxylated acidic forms, THCa and CBDa. These acidic precursors are decarboxylated (essentially dried) by heat or extraction to produce THC and CBD; only then do they become psychoactive.The compound has medicinal benefits without the “high” that some patients do not desire. This makes CBD appealing to patients who are looking for an alternative to their current meds, which often have opiate-like effects.
Answering the question “what is CBD oil” would be incomplete without mentioning the many CBD oil benefits. In addition to positively affecting the endocannabinoid system, CBD has been the focus of more than 23,000 published studies about cannabinoids in relation to various medical indications including anxiety, epilepsy, inflammation, cancer and chronic pain to name few. You can even find CBD for pets that is specially formulated to safely allow your pets to experience the natural benefits of CBD. For a more comprehensive look at these and other studies, visit our medical research and education page.
Cannabidiol is currently a class B1 controlled drug in New Zealand under the Misuse of Drugs Act. It is also a prescription medicine under the Medicines Act. In 2017 the rules were changed so that anyone wanting to use it could go to the Health Ministry for approval. Prior to this, the only way to obtain a prescription was to seek the personal approval of the Minister of Health.
Thoughts: I liked the lavender flavor more than I thought I would, but I've tried SelectCBD in the past, so I wasn't too shocked. The brand's peppermint CBD oil is my go-to morning oil, and lemon ginger is great for a subtle flavor, but the lavender overwhelmed my senses (in a good way?) and left me feeling very zen. I could see this being perfect in a mug of tea or just before bed.
Can CBD oil help anxiety? Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical occurring in cannabis plants. It is possible to add CBD oil to food, and an increasing amount of evidence suggests that it may improve mental health, particularly anxiety. It does not seem to have adverse side effects, but CBD oil is illegal in some states. Learn more about CBD oil here. Read now

Due to the need for confirmatory studies to verify the clinical benefit coupled with the promising nature of the clinical evidence, Sativex was also given a Notice of Compliance with Conditions (NOC/c) by Health Canada for the following indications: 1) as adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of neuropathic pain in adult patients with multiple sclerosis; 2) as adjunctive analgesic treatment in adult patients with advanced cancer who experience moderate to severe pain during the highest tolerated dose of strong opioid therapy for persistent background pain [15]. 

The existence of substantial clinical investigations regarding CBD has been made public. For example, two such substantial clinical investigations include GW Pharmaceuticals’ investigations regarding Sativex and Epidiolex. (See Sativex Commences US Phase II/III Clinical Trial in Cancer Pain and GW Pharmaceuticals Receives Investigational New Drug (IND) from FDA for Phase 2/3 Clinical Trial of Epidiolex in the Treatment of Dravet Syndrome ).
Our Non-GMO Organic Hemp Seed Oil is sourced directly from Organic artisanal farmers in Canada. Extracted from the seeds of the cannabis plant, it comes from the tall growing varieties of cannabis and has been used worldwide for hundreds of years. However, it does not contain THC – the primary psychoactive compound in marijuana. This is not CBD oil. Ingesting hemp oil or using it on your skin won’t cause you to get high.
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Sublingual CBD Oils – also known as CBD Tinctures or CBD Hemp Oil – are the most popular type of CBD products, because of their high bioavailability and rapid absorption. There are many other kinds of products as well, including CBD edibles, CBD topicals, and even CBD-infused Coffee. CBD products have gained immense popularity in health and wellness circles thanks to their natural support of our endocannabinoid system (ECS).
First comes CBD, then comes the oil. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabinoid, or chemical compound, found in both cannabis and hemp plants, explains Kimberly Cargile, the Executive Director of medical marijuana dispensary A Therapeutic Alternative. “There [are] hundreds of cannabinoids in the cannabis plant and hemp plants, and [CBD] is one of them,” she says.
The active ingredients in cannabis may be extracted and separated in a number of ways, including water, CO2, alcohol, and organic solvents, such as butane. At Canna Farms, we like to keep things simple! We use a proprietary solvent-less extraction process to obtain a pure, natural, concentrated whole-plant cannabis resin. This resin is rich in THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids and terpenes. This process does NOT use any harsh or dangerous solvents, which ensures safety for our clients as well as our staff.
In a study whose findings have not yet been published, he and a colleague, Daniel Friedman, found that patients receiving CBD in addition to their usual medicines had 39 percent fewer convulsive seizures than patients who remained on their normal drug regimen. Given that the study included only the most treatment-resistant patients, this is an “excellent response,” Devinsky says.
Most people do not associate cognitive health issues like anxiety, depression, brain fog, ADD, ADHD, and autism with inflammation, but it turns out that is exactly what the research is finding. There is actually a whole field of research known as the cytokine model of cognitive function studying how inflammation messes with our brains and may cause anxiety disorders. One finding is that elevated levels of NF kappa B (NFkB), an inflammatory bad guy, is associated with anxiety while people with lower levels of NFkB often have lower rates of anxiety.

Over the years, cannabis oil has been used as an effective treatment for anxiety and depression. Furthermore, it is constantly being researched by scientists. In fact, CBD effects on anxiety is currently considered to be one of the most intriguing and well-funded areas of modern cannabis research; if progress continues in the way that it has over the last several years, then it is very possible that we will develop highly effective ways in which oils for anxiety (and depression) can be used as an effective therapy.


The short answer: Using products with CBD oil — or CBD oil itself, for that matter — will not get you high. “CBD hemp oil is made from the flowers, leaves and stalks of hemp that contains high amounts of CBD, but low traces of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is commonly found in a cannabis plant,” Carqueville says. THC is the psychoactive element of marijuana.
In fact, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Epidiolex (a drug made with a purified form of CBD oil) in June 2018 for the treatment of seizures associated with two rare and severe forms of epilepsy in patients 2 years of age and older. These two epilepsy forms are known as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. Epidiolex is the first FDA-approved drug that contains a purified drug substance derived from marijuana.
The powerful components of cannabis essential oil are used to protect the skin. It can be consumed both internally and applied externally to enhance the cannabis effect. It can stimulate the shedding of dead skin and faster re-growth of healthy, glowing skin. Cannabis sativa seed oil is also known for preventing wrinkles, signs of aging, and protecting against eczema and psoriasis.
Based on client feedback, as well as our own R&D, we have chosen to use Grape Seed Oil, which has a very high content of polyunsaturated fats, and is rich in Omega 3-6 as well as Omega-9 essential fatty acids. Grape Seed Oil is NOT recognized as an allergen by Health Canada (HC) or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA); however, some people may have sensitivities to it.
And the products on the shelf aren't all the same, Ward said. "There can be many, many different varieties, and if you're thinking about doing this for medical reasons, you want to find a trusted source and do your research," she said. "Where does that oil come from, and how confident can you be that you know the exact percentages of the different cannabinoids in the product?"
Here, the evidence is not going to make them happy. A 2017 study in JAMA reported that only 26 of 84 samples of CBD oils, tinctures and liquids purchased online contained the amount of CBD claimed on their labels. Eighteen of them contained THC, which could lead to intoxication or impairment in some individuals. And a quarter had less CBD than advertised. The F.D.A. has likewise found many products that did not contain the amount of CBD they were claiming.
After we collect the concentrated cannabis resin, our third-party analytical laboratory tests it for potency and purity. A known amount of cannabis resin is then taken and gently heated in a carrier oil to reach a desired cannabinoid potency. This heating allows for the cannabinoids to become fully decarboxylated, making the cannabis oil ready to use.
Some CBD oil brands can be evasive when it comes to product testing details. Populum addresses this by including a hard copy of the oil’s lab testing results in the product packaging. Full lab results are easily accessible on the brand’s website, as well. Prices for the Populum CBD oil range from 18 to 24 cents per milligram, depending on the container size, making it a relatively inexpensive full spectrum product. All U.S. military veterans receive a 25% discount, as well. Populum offers a risk-free 30-night product trial.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) within the human body helps to regulate many important functions such as immune system response, pain, appetite and sleep. The body produces neurotransmitters or endocannabinoids which bind to cannabinoid receptors in the nervous system. It has been shown that CBD will reduce pain as it impacts the endocannabinoid receptor activity, interacts with neurotransmitters and reduces inflammation. Research shows that CBD injections reduce the pain of surgical incision in rats and that it also reduces inflammation and nerve pain. Humans studies showed that it is also effective in treating the pain of arthritis and multiple sclerosis sufferers.


So far, I am very pleased with this product. I have been trying this product to address issues I have dealt with for many years now. With laws the way they are right now, I am very pleased to be able to pursue this course of treatment, which is mainly anxiety, mild panic attacks...... I still can say for certain, but the CBD method seems to be working for me. And I'm going to continue on this path of addressing my issues, as my doctor would, if laws allowed him to.
Distinguishing cannabis and hemp can be confusing, so let's make it simple. There are many varietals of Cannabis sativa, all of which have different amounts of THC and CBD. Cannabis sativa varietals that have more than 0.3 percent THC are commonly referred to as marijuana. Hemp is any varietal of Cannabis sativa that contains less than 0.3 percent THC.
Cannabis oil is a concentrated extract obtained by extraction of the dried flowers or leaves of the cannabis plant. It is not actually an oil, but derives its name from its sticky and oily appearance. The purpose of producing cannabis oil is to make cannabinoids and other beneficial components, such as terpenes, available in a highly concentrated form.

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A. While the agency is aware of reports of pets consuming various forms of marijuana, to date, FDA has not directly received any adverse event reports associated with giving marijuana to animals via our safety reporting portals. However, adverse events from accidental ingestion are well-documented in scientific literature. If you feel your animal has suffered from ingesting marijuana, we encourage you to report the adverse event to the FDA. Please visit Reporting Information about Animal Drugs and Devices to learn more about how to report an adverse event related to an animal food or drug.
Hemp oil or Hemp Oil contains essential fatty acids, including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), that are required for brain development. DHA is crucial to the health of the brain as well as the retina of the eye, particularly in the first year of life. Mothers who supplement with hemp oil during pregnancy may provide brain- and eye-protective benefits for the developing baby.
Following a single buccal administration, maximum plasma concentrations of both CBD and THC typically occur within two to four hours. When administered buccally, blood levels of THC and other cannabinoids are lower compared with inhalation of smoked cannabis. The resultant concentrations in the blood are lower than those obtained by inhaling the same dose because absorption is slower, redistribution into fatty tissues is rapid and additionally some of the THC undergoes hepatic first pass metabolism to 11-OH-THC, a psycho-active metabolite.
Why stress happens and how to manage it Stress is essential for survival; the chemicals it triggers help the body prepare to face danger and cope with difficulty. Long-term stress is linked to various health conditions and can cause physical and psychological symptoms. How is it diagnosed, what types of stress are there, and how is it treated or managed? Read now
"It's important to know that the research in this area is in its infancy, partly because we haven't really understood much about CBD until relatively recently," said Marcel Bonn-Miller, an adjunct assistant professor at the University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine. He pointed out that the classification of marijuana as a Schedule 1 drug by the DEA makes it difficult to get material to use in laboratory studies. Schedule 1 drugs have a high potential for abuse, according to the DEA, and are illegal under federal law.
A phytocannabinoid derived from Cannabis species, which is devoid of psychoactive activity, with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. Upon administration, cannabidiol (CBD) exerts its anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic activity through various mechanisms, which likely do not involve signaling by cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1), CB2, or vanilloid receptor 1. CBD stimulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inhibits AKT/mTOR signaling, thereby activating autophagy and promoting apoptosis. In addition, CBD enhances the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which further enhances apoptosis. This agent also upregulates the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP1) and decreases the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID-1). This inhibits cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis. CBD may also activate the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 2 (TRPV2), which may increase the uptake of various cytotoxic agents in cancer cells. The analgesic effect of CBD is mediated through the binding of this agent to and activation of CB1. Check for active clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus)

This content is strictly the opinion of Dr. Josh Axe and is for informational and educational purposes only. It is not intended to provide medical advice or to take the place of medical advice or treatment from a personal physician. All readers/viewers of this content are advised to consult their doctors or qualified health professionals regarding specific health questions. Neither Dr. Axe nor the publisher of this content takes responsibility for possible health consequences of any person or persons reading or following the information in this educational content. All viewers of this content, especially those taking prescription or over-the-counter medications, should consult their physicians before beginning any nutrition, supplement or lifestyle program.
First comes CBD, then comes the oil. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabinoid, or chemical compound, found in both cannabis and hemp plants, explains Kimberly Cargile, the Executive Director of medical marijuana dispensary A Therapeutic Alternative. “There [are] hundreds of cannabinoids in the cannabis plant and hemp plants, and [CBD] is one of them,” she says.
Our family has been making healthy oils and supplements in the Pacific Northwest for nearly 30 years. As a leader in the natural foods industry, we stake our reputation on innovating and creating the quality products our customers have come to expect. And like all of our products, our Ideal CBD Hemp Oil meets the very highest standards of excellence.
Under the Section 56 Class Exemption, approved ACMPR Licensed Producers (LPs) are now able to produce and sell cannabis infused oils. Cannabis oil contains cannabinoids, such as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), as well as other minor cannabinoids (CBC, CBG, and CBN), and aromatic compounds (terpenes), which are extracted from fresh or dried cannabis, and dissolved in a carrier oil.
In addition to the well-known activity on CB1 and CB2 receptors, there is further evidence that CBD also activates 5-HT1A/2A/3A serotonergic and TRPV1–2 vanilloid receptors, antagonizes alpha-1 adrenergic and µ-opioid receptors, inhibits synaptosomal uptake of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and cellular uptake of anandamide, acts on mitochondria Ca2+ stores, blocks low-voltage-activated (T-type) Ca2+ channels, stimulates activity of the inhibitory glycine-receptor, and inhibits activity of fatty amide hydrolase (FAAH) [1, 2].
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