Yes! We ship our CBD oil to over 40 countries including Argentina, Austria, Australia, Belgium, Belize, Brazil, Bulgaria, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Guam, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Mexico, Netherlands, Antilles, Northern Ireland, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, Russia,  Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden, Switzerland, U.S. Virgin Islands, Uruguay, and many others! If you require assistance completing a payment, please contact us.
Refined hempseed oil is clear and colorless, with little flavor and lacks natural vitamins and antioxidants. Refined hempseed oil is primarily used in body care products. Industrial hempseed oil is used in lubricants, paints, inks, fuel, and plastics. Hempseed oil is used in the production of soaps, shampoos and detergents. The oil has a 3:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids.[3] It may also be used as a feedstock for the large-scale production of biodiesel.[4]
Based on history cannabis is believed to have originated from Central Asia. Cannabis is one of the oldest plant medicines known to man. It is difficult to trace the beginnings of cannabis use use by humans because it was cultivated and consumed long before the appearance of writing. According to archeological discoveries, cannabis has been known in China since the Neolithic period, around 4000 BC.
NIDA provides research-grade marijuana for scientific study. The agency is responsible for overseeing the cultivation of marijuana for medical research and has contracted with the University of Mississippi to grow marijuana for research at a secure facility. Marijuana of varying potencies and compositions is available. DEA also may allow additional growers to register with the DEA to produce and distribute marijuana for research purposes.
The case study notes that advanced chemotherapeutic agents had failed to control the blast counts (cells in the blood and bone marrow) in the patient and had devastating side effects that ultimately resulted in death. The cannabinoid therapy, on the other hand, had no toxic side effects and only psychosomatic properties, with an increase in the patient’s vitality.

In addition to acting on the brain, CBD influences many body processes. That’s due to the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which was discovered in the 1990s, after scientists started investigating why pot produces a high. Although much less well-known than the cardiovascular, reproductive, and respiratory systems, the ECS is critical. “The ECS helps us eat, sleep, relax, forget what we don’t need to remember, and protect our bodies from harm,” Marcu says. There are more ECS receptors in the brain than there are for opioids or serotonin, plus others in the intestines, liver, pancreas, ovaries, bone cells, and elsewhere.


Hemp oil is also rich in "super" polyunsaturated fatty acids, most notably gamma-linolenic acid and stearidonic acid. Although these are not essential fatty acids, they may help reduce the symptoms of atopic dermatitis and other skin conditions. However, the amount of these non-essential fatty acids varies according to the quality of the hemp plant the acids were derived from.
Hi Patti, our full spectrum CBD oil is a good option for assisting with sleep. We can’t legally prescribe, or tell you our product will cure or treat insomnia. Our CBD oil assist with sleep, by relaxing the body enough to sleep. It will also assist with having a deeper sleep. I would recommend our strongest strength that we offer, which is our 5x strength CBD oil. Which our 5x strength gives you about 50mg per serving. https://zatural.com/products/cannabis-sativa-hemp-oil-drops
Schizophrenia. Research on the use of cannabidiol for psychotic symptoms in people with schizophrenia is conflicting. Some early research suggests that taking cannabidiol four times daily for 4 weeks improves psychotic symptoms and might be as effective as the antipsychotic medication amisulpride. However, other early research suggests that taking cannabidiol for 14 days is not beneficial. The conflicting results might be related to the cannabidiol dose used and duration of treatment.
Canabidol™ CBD Cannabis Oil (CBD Oli)– Available in 25%,50% and 75% concentrations. Our proprietary engineering process has been developed to isolate and remove any unwanted compounds, while creating the maximum potency level of phytocannabinoids.  State-of-the-art technology is employed to ensure a full-spectrum oil, that includes both high levels of Canabidiol, Cannabinoids and terpenes. This guarantees a consistent, pure, and premium product for our customers
Specific city and county laws have been enacted to regulate how citizens and tourists may possess and consume marijuana. Penalties exist for driving while under the influence of marijuana. Someone driving under the influence of marijuana is considered impaired in both Colorado and Washington when five nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL) of blood or more of active THC is detected.
Depending on which hormone is stimulated, cannabis can boost or suppress appetite. For this reason, cannabis oil can help patients with eating disorders or be a natural way to treat obesity. This manipulation of the cannabinoid system is becoming popular, and more research is being done to determine its efficacy for patients with weight concerns. (6)
Based on client feedback, as well as our own R&D, we have chosen to use Grape Seed Oil, which has a very high content of polyunsaturated fats, and is rich in Omega 3-6 as well as Omega-9 essential fatty acids. Grape Seed Oil is NOT recognized as an allergen by Health Canada (HC) or the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA); however, some people may have sensitivities to it.
Chronic pain: The body’s ECS plays a role in alleviating and managing pain, so CBD oil can work as a supplement for individuals with medical conditions that cause chronic pain, such as arthritis and multiple sclerosis. CBD oil also increases levels of adenosine in the brain; adenosine is a neurotransmitter that aids cardiovascular function and eases painful inflammation.
CBD stands for cannabidiol. It is the second most prevalent of the active ingredients of cannabis (marijuana). While CBD is an essential component of medical marijuana, it is derived directly from the hemp plant, which is a cousin of the marijuana plant. While CBD is a component of marijuana (one of hundreds), by itself it does not cause a “high.” According to a report from the World Health Organization, “In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential…. To date, there is no evidence of public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.”
The nutrition and supplement industry—which includes CBD products—is almost wholly unregulated. “The concentrations in products are only approximate, and I don’t know how well they’re tracked,” Szaflarski says. Even if you could absolutely trust a product’s label—and many CBD manufacturers, aware of the current scrutiny on their industry, go to great lengths to assure consumers of the quality of their products—there aren’t a lot of concrete facts when it comes to the type or amount of CBD a person should take for a specific ailment or aim.
CBD oil is made by mixing the extracted CBD or cannabidiol from the cannabis or marijuana plant (Cannabis Sativa) with coconut or hemp seed oil. CBD oil possesses cannabidiol; while THC is psychoactive, CBD is not, thereby helping relieve pain, treating anxiety and depression, fighting cancer, reducing anxiety. It also improves the quality of sleep, boosts appetite, and optimizes digestion.
That leaves those touting CBD’s effectiveness pointing primarily to research in mice and petri dishes. There, CBD (sometimes combined with small amounts of THC) has shown promise for helping pain, neurological conditions like anxiety and PTSD, and the immune system—and therefore potentially arthritis, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, cancer, and more.
We would never sacrifice quality by providing a synthetic CBD or CBD isolate blend. We use a whole plant extract that is rich in cannabinoids, terpenes, and other beneficial oils. The Hadassah Medical School at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem sought to compare the effectiveness of a completely purified CBD extract versus a full-spectrum extract of cannabis flowers containing large quantities of CBD. The conclusion of the study was that the whole plant extract, which contained a large percentage of CBD but also contained traces of the other cannabinoids, proved far more effective than CBD-only solutions in alleviating inflammation and pain sensation.
The nervous system’s endocannabinoid system is not well understood. But it’s thought to play a role in regulating pain, sleep, mood, memory, appetite, and other cognitive and physical processes. Because CBD is able to mimic the actions of some natural brain chemicals, its potential therapeutic benefits are wide-ranging but—at this point—nebulous. “We know that cannabidiol modulates the endocannabinoid system, but we don’t know how it works,” Szaflarski says. That said, there are theories.
Our CBD oil is lab-tested as soon as it is extracted and then again by a third party lab (Steep Hill) in Berkeley, California, to ensure an accurate amount of CBD. In addition, we test for over 200 pesticides, herbicides, mold, fungi, heavy metals, and mycotoxins. We use cutting-edge testing and world-class equipment to ensure that our products are safe and healthy. Please contact us for current lab results.
That doesn’t mean it’s completely risk-free, but the likely risks are more of the allergic reaction variety, Romanowski notes. “It is a component of an essential oil, and reactions are not frequent, but common in a small percentage of the population,” he says. “People should do a small patch test on their skin before generally applying the product over their body.”
I suffer from Fibromyalgia, spinal stenosis, osteoporosis, arthritis, and 66 yeas of wear and tear. I was overwhelmed by the endless varieties of hemp oil even after reading all the product info, so I chose to go with Amazon’s pick.this has a subtle mint flavor and within 2days, I was seeing a reduction in pain, better mood, and improvements in my brain fog. They have a loyal customer now. Even the headache I have had for 6 months since being put on Gabapentin is gone which means I no longer take Advil like tic tacs! Click Here For CBD
There has actually been a substantial amount of experiments done on cannabidiol that has proved its potential healing powers. Dr. Sean McAllister, a scientist from the Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco, made an astounding discovery about CBD. McAllister has been studying cannabinoid compounds for 10 years now in search of new therapeutic interventions for various cancers. He discovered that cannabidiol is a potent inhibitor of cancer cell proliferation, metastasis, and tumor growth.
“I just felt good,” he adds. “But I wasn’t high at all.” Joliat’s anecdotal experience with CBD is a common one. Some informal polling suggests a lot of people today are at least vaguely familiar with cannabidiol, and have either used it themselves or know someone who has. But even some people who use it don’t seem to know exactly what it is or whether there’s any hard science out there to back up its benefits.
If you think you may have a medical emergency, call your healthcare provider or 911 immediately. Any mention of products or services is not meant as a guarantee, endorsement, or recommendation of the products, services, or companies. Reliance on any information provided is solely at your own risk. Please discuss any options with your healthcare provider.
A review of 25 studies on the safety and efficacy of CBD did not identify significant side effects across a wide range of dosages, including acute and chronic dose regimens, using various modes of administration.xli CBD is present in nabiximols which, as noted earlier, is approved throughout most of Europe and in other countries. Because of this, there is extensive information available with regard to its metabolism, toxicology, and safety. However, additional safety testing among specific patient populations may be warranted should an application be made to the Food and Drug Administration.

Serotonin: Most people associate serotonin with happiness. However, the role of this neurotransmitter is very complex, and its effects depend on where it is and what it binds to. (Contrary to popular belief, more serotonin is not necessarily better — dysfunction can stem from low or high levels of serotonin, as well as from malfunctions with their receptors.) Serotonin has at least 14 different receptors, but CBD specifically binds to 5-HT1A which is thought to have the strongest role in anxiety disorders. The anti-anxiety drug buspirone also binds to this particular receptor, which explains the anti-anxiety effects of CBD on rats exposed to stressful situations.


Given CBD’s reputation as a popular, artisanal remedy, one would think that Epidiolex would command a lot of “off label” attention. After all, physicians often prescribe pharmaceuticals off label to treat conditions that were not the actual focus of clinical trials. But the costly price tag for Epidiolex (more than $30,000 annually) precludes off label prescribing as well as affordable access for tens of millions of Americans without health insurance.


It turns out that this unpredictability comes mainly from variations in the quantities and ratios of phytocannabinoids and synergistic terpenes. Too much THC can overstimulate the body’s CB1 receptors, while THC’s non-intoxicating sister molecule, cannabidiol (CBD), can directly and indirectly counteract the anxiety people experience from too much THC. Different cannabis strains have different concentrations of these two molecules — which is one reason for vastly different anxiety responses.
The existence of substantial clinical investigations regarding CBD has been made public. For example, two such substantial clinical investigations include GW Pharmaceuticals’ investigations regarding Sativex and Epidiolex. (See Sativex Commences US Phase II/III Clinical Trial in Cancer Pain and GW Pharmaceuticals Receives Investigational New Drug (IND) from FDA for Phase 2/3 Clinical Trial of Epidiolex in the Treatment of Dravet Syndrome ).
AC/DC: A Sativa-dominant phenotype of Cannatonic, this cultivar boasts one of the highest ratios of CBD to THC, clocking in at 20:1. AC/DC is claimed to help reduce pain, anxiety, depression and migraines while reducing symptoms in patients with epilepsy, some forms of cancer, and multiple sclerosis. This cultivar’s pinene-rich terpene profile offers potent clear-headed pain relief.
In terms of eye health, cannabis and cannabis essential oil have been linked to a reduction in glaucoma and a prevention of macular degeneration, according to a report published by Dr. John Merritt, Department of Ophthalmology School of Medicine, University of North Carolina. Eye health is one of the major reasons why people turn to cannabis essential oil as they age.
There are thousands of unique varieties of hemp. The cultivars used for CBD oil contain significantly higher concentrations of CBD than others. Using these uniquely potent plants, it is possible to extract cannabis oil that contains significant levels of cannabidiol, as well as essential vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, terpenes, flavonoids, and other non-psychoactive cannabinoids.
That headache study cites research linking CBD to lower rates of anxiety. (Since anxiety often produces headaches, the authors say, CBD could be a plausible headache remedy if those anti-anxiety benefits are legit.) Grant says he’s looked at the literature on CBD and anxiety, and some of it is enticing. He mentions a Brazilian study, for instance, that found people with a fear of public speaking felt less anxiety and less discomfort about their phobia after taking CBD, compared to those who took a placebo.
The patient continued to use cannabis oil for 65 days. The family changed strains of the oil repeatedly, and some were more effective in increasing appetite and alleviating pain than others. The author of the case report suggests that cannabis oil needs to be explored further because there is potential that cannabinoids might show selectivity when attacking cancer cells, thereby reducing the widespread cytotoxic effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. Sadly, the young girl with ALL passed away due to gastrointestinal bleeding and a bowel perforation.
Concern about the dangers of marijuana abuse led to the banning of cannabinoids for medicinal use in the U.S. and many other countries in the 1930s and 1940s. It took decades until they came to be considered again as compounds of therapeutic value, and even now their uses are highly restricted yet more and more states have now legalized medical marijuana.
There's plenty of anecdotal evidence that CBD helps treat a variety of ailments. People are turning to oils, gummies, and other CBD food and drink products to relax at the end of a long day. Retired NFL players are using CBD to manage physical pain, debilitating headaches, and sleeplessness. Spa clients are even using CBD skin products to fight signs of aging.
Cannabidiol is one of several cannabinoids, chemical substances found in cannabis plants. Although there are several cannabinoids, CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are the two that are most widely known. THC is found in large quantities in marijuana plants – it’s the cannabinoid that’s responsible for most of the psychoactive effects that cause marijuana users to get “high.” Cannabidiol also is found in marijuana plants but only at low levels. The primary source of CBD in nature is the hemp plant, a botanical cousin to marijuana.
Taking a fish oil supplement can be a helpful way to increase omega-3 fatty acids in your diet, a nutrient that is essential for brain development, immune system health, and mood regulation. Expectant mothers certainly want to include these nutrients in their diet; however, fish contains a great deal of mercury which can hinder neurological and developmental mechanisms in the unborn baby. Fortunately, hemp oil works as a terrific alternative to traditional omega-3 fatty acid supplements and doesn’t carry the same risk of mercury ingestion.  
Most human studies of CBD have been done on people who have seizures, and the FDA recently approved the first CBD-based drug, Epidiolex, for rare forms of epilepsy. Clinical trials for other conditions are promising, but tiny. In one Brazilian study published in 2011 of people with generalized social anxiety disorder, for example, taking a 600-mg dose of CBD (higher than a typical dose from a tincture) lessened discomfort more than a placebo, but only a dozen people were given the pill.
Do not use cannabis if you are pregnant or could become pregnant. There is some evidence that women who smoke cannabis during the time of conception or while pregnant may increase the risk of their child being born with birth defects. Pregnant women who continue to smoke cannabis are probably at greater risk of giving birth to low birthweight babies.
Dry mouth: As is the case with many other hemp- and marijuana-based products, CBD oil often leads to a condition known as dry mouth (or cottonmouth). This is likely due to cannabinoids altering receptors in the lower jaw that trigger salivation. In most cases, mild discomfort and stronger-than-average thirst are the only issues associated with dry mouth.
Devinsky puts more weight behind the scientific advancements: In June, the FDA approved an epilepsy drug called Epidiolex, which contains a purified form of CBD oil. In controlled clinical trials, the drug was proven to reduce seizures in people with Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome — and it didn't produce as many of the unpleasant side-effects that come with other epilepsy medications.
Now 13, Jackson — whose diagnosis is undetermined — continues to use marijuana every day. (Like many patients, he ingests it in droplet form, which allows for more precise dosing and avoids lung problems.) He still has seizures, but they are less severe and they occur once every week or two, down from around 200 a month before he started using cannabis. He is back in school full time and is well enough to go on hikes and bike rides with his family.
Cannabidiol can cause sleepiness or drowsiness. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that have the same effect might cause too much sleepiness. Some of these herbs and supplements include calamus, California poppy, catnip, hops, Jamaican dogwood, kava, L-tryptophan, melatonin, sage, SAMe, St. John's wort, sassafras, skullcap, and others.

In the United States, non-FDA approved CBD products are classified as Schedule I drugs under the Controlled Substances Act.[62] This means that production, distribution, and possession of non-FDA approved CBD products is illegal under federal law. In addition, in 2016 the Drug Enforcement Administration added "marijuana extracts" to the list of Schedule I drugs, which it defined as "an extract containing one or more cannabinoids that has been derived from any plant of the genus Cannabis, other than the separated resin (whether crude or purified) obtained from the plant."[63] Previously, CBD had simply been considered "marijuana", which is a Schedule I drug.[62][64]


Would I say that CBD oil has fundamentally changed my life? No. But per the Charlotte's Web website, this is the typical first experience. "Anyone who has ever started a new vitamin or supplement routine knows the short answer to how long it takes to kick in is—'it depends,'" reads the article on what to expect from hemp oil. "For many newcomers, they're not sure what to imagine, or some anticipate a huge change right away. For most of us, though, dietary supplements take time."
On the other hand, Hemp-based CBD is taken from 100% lawful industrial hemp plants that contain under 0.3% THC. On the off chance that you will be purchasing oils for anxiety from an online vendor, for instance, at that point, you will probably be obtaining an item that has been sourced from hemp, instead of marijuana. This is impeccably good. However, even though industrial hemp does not have the mind-altering THC compound, it is infinite with CBD. Hemp oil for anxiety can be similarly as powerful regarding therapeutic treatment as other marijuana-based oils for anxiety — that is, whether they have been separated and prepared appropriately.
Phyto Plus Whole Plant Hemp Cannabidiol extracts, naturally grown, free from insecticides, pesticides and non GMO. Worldwide same day shipping from the Netherlands. Produced with safe, solvent residue free, super critical CO2 extraction, the cleanest extraction method in the industry. If you are wondering where to buy pure cbd oil online in Europe, Phyto Plus is a great option. 

Under federal law, cannabis (from which both CBD and marijuana are derived) is illegal everywhere, although the laws against it aren’t generally enforced in states that have legalized marijuana. Some manufacturers claim that CBD culled from legally imported industrial hemp, which has little to no THC, is fine to ship across the U.S., but many experts disagree, noting that because hemp comes from the same species as marijuana, cannabis sativa, all CBD falls under the DEA’s Schedule 1 designation. “This creative interpretation of the law runs afoul of reality,” says the Brookings Institution, a Washington, DC, think tank.
Cannabis and makeup aren’t two words that have been used in the same sentence for long. Sure, cannabis and its derivatives come in many forms, but many of us mostly think of those as being the smokeable or ingestible type, not the apply-to-your-face type. The reality, though, is that cannabis oil has all sorts of positive benefits when it comes to your beauty and skincare — which is why it made perfect sense to us to incorporate it into our newest 100% vegan product, Kush Mascara. The cannabis oil derived from hemp serves as a vegan alternative to beeswax, which is a common binding agent in mascaras, and helps create a conditioning, smooth formula that majorly helps deliver in the volume department (read more about that, here). Brush up on this powerful ingredient.
Since 1929, Standard Process has been the visionary leader in whole food nutrient solutions. We apply systems thinking to holistic nutrition that empowers practitioners to transform lives. Dedicated to the whole food philosophy of our founder, Dr. Royal Lee, our goal is to carry on his mission to provide nutrients for the body that are as close as possible to how they are found in nature.
The mosaic of laws that govern CBD legality across the globe varies just as much as the legislation across the US. Generally, CBD extract is legal in most countries, but what makes it illegal is where and what it’s extracted from. Most Group of 20 (G20) countries allow CBD extracted from industrial hemp, but not CBD extracted from whole-plant marijuana. Note, however, the differences between the two. Legislation regarding international travel with CBD also varies among countries. For the foreseeable future, the best practice would be to search online, or contact the respective embassies or consulates, before traveling to determine whether your CBD is safe and legal.
Another common side effect that hemp oil can cause in supplement users involves the cardiac system and bloodstream. As the PeaceHealth website states, hemp oil products can directly affect the anticoagulant properties of platelets within the blood, often inhibiting their very production. As a result, patients who are currently being treated for a blood clotting deficiency or other cardiac medical condition are strongly advised to stay away from hemp oil supplements of any kind due to possible symptom complications.

Hi Cheryl, for legal reason we can’t make any type of medical claims, saying that our product will cure or treat any type of medical diagnosis, such as (depression). Our CBD oil is great for assisting with pain, inflammation, stress, anxiety and sleep. To help with taste we do offer peppermint flavor. We will be offering more flavors in the near future. Some who take the oil like to mix it with orange juice or use orange juice as a chaser.
Anxiety-related disorders affect a huge segment of our population—40 million adults (18%) in the United States age 18 and older. In response, Big Pharma has developed numerous drugs to treat anxiety-related disorders, from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) like Prozac and Zoloft to tranquilizers (the most popular class being benzodiazepines such as Valium and Xanax).

Grant says this may lead to a “dampening” or mellowing of some neurochemical processes, including those linked to pain. “CBD may also react with other receptors, like those for serotonin, and it may have actions that reduce the inflammatory molecules produced whenever there is tissue damage or bacteria coming in,” he says. “But we really don’t know the mechanisms.”
AC/DC: A Sativa-dominant phenotype of Cannatonic, this cultivar boasts one of the highest ratios of CBD to THC, clocking in at 20:1. AC/DC is claimed to help reduce pain, anxiety, depression and migraines while reducing symptoms in patients with epilepsy, some forms of cancer, and multiple sclerosis. This cultivar’s pinene-rich terpene profile offers potent clear-headed pain relief.
Hemp oil is comprised of 25 percent protein, says Dr. Andrew Weil, the program director for the Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine, which is recognized by the Arizona Board of Regents. This high-quality protein provides amino acids in ratios similar to the protein in meats and eggs. The structure of hemp oil proteins makes them easily digestible. Compared to other oils, hemp oil provides the protein and amino acids the body needs without adding unnecessary calories.
PureKana Natural CBD oil is an unflavored, dietary and nutritional supplement for increased health and vitality. It aims at relaxation and due to its compounds, it seems to have a relatively quick effect. All products go through laboratory testing to ensure safety and potency, and all of their CBD oils are regarded as being non-psychoactive. They also deliver to all 50 states which is a major bonus.
In the United States, non-FDA approved CBD products are classified as Schedule I drugs under the Controlled Substances Act.[62] This means that production, distribution, and possession of non-FDA approved CBD products is illegal under federal law. In addition, in 2016 the Drug Enforcement Administration added "marijuana extracts" to the list of Schedule I drugs, which it defined as "an extract containing one or more cannabinoids that has been derived from any plant of the genus Cannabis, other than the separated resin (whether crude or purified) obtained from the plant."[63] Previously, CBD had simply been considered "marijuana", which is a Schedule I drug.[62][64]
Thoughts: I liked the lavender flavor more than I thought I would, but I've tried SelectCBD in the past, so I wasn't too shocked. The brand's peppermint CBD oil is my go-to morning oil, and lemon ginger is great for a subtle flavor, but the lavender overwhelmed my senses (in a good way?) and left me feeling very zen. I could see this being perfect in a mug of tea or just before bed.

CBD and THC interact with our bodies in a variety of ways. One of the main ways they impact us is by mimicking and augmenting the effects of the compounds in our bodies called “endogenous cannabinoids” - so named because of their similarity to the compounds found in the cannabis plant. These “endocannabinoids” are part of a regulatory system called the “endocannabinoid system”.
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